Thursday, December 2, 2021

Cold-Resistant and Cryogenic Steel: Metallurgy and Weldability Trends - AZoM

Last updated Thursday, November 25, 2021 09:59 ET , Source: NewsService

Icebreakers, energy storage, gas transporters, hydrocarbon processing and transportation, windmills, drilling equipment, railways, and the transportation sectors all employ high-strength, cryogenic, and cold-resistant steels, as written in the journal Metals. When a specific threshold is surpassed, certain elements that are ductile at ambient temperatures decrease their ductility immediately.

Study: Advanced Trends in Metallurgy and Weldability of High-Strength Cold-Resistant and Cryogenic Steels. Image Credit: DreamerAchieverNoraTarvus/Shutterstock.com

Metals at Cryogenic Temperatures

At low temperatures, standard construction metals, martensitic or ferritic stainless steels as well as chromium, iron, and tungsten, become brittle. Other metals such as silver, copper, gold, nickel, and aluminum are ductile at cryogenic temperatures.

Mechanical properties of HSS and AHSS (Advanced High-Strength Steels) high-strength cold-resistant and cryogenic steels. Image Credit: Rudskoi, A., and Parshin, S., Metals

The development of low-alloy Si-Mn ferritic–pearlitic metals with a less than 0.2 percent carbon content marked the beginning of traditional high-strength steel (HSS) smelting. Through the use of V, Ti, Nb, and Thermal-Mechanical Controlled Processing (TMCP), a fine-grained microstructure was achieved, enhancing rigidity and impact strength and toughness while lowering carbon content by 0.15 percent.

Controlled Process with Heat Treatment

Following the invention of TMCP and...

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