Monday, January 30, 2023

The Novel Treatment For Reproductive Disorders- Kisspeptin

Last updated Sunday, January 22, 2023 10:17 ET , Source: Kisspeptin

The KISS1 gene encodes the novel treatment for reproductive disorders, Kisspeptin, a peptide of just 54 amino acids created by cleaving a longer peptide of 145 amino acids.

New York, NY, 01/22/2023 / SubmitMyPR /

The KISS1 gene encodes the novel treatment for reproductive disorders, Kisspeptin, a peptide of just 54 amino acids created by cleaving a longer peptide of 145 amino acids.

Researchers may stifle cancer-causing aberrant cell proliferation, and one can avoid illnesses like melanomas and breast carcinomas thanks to a gene called KISS1.

Kisspeptin was first identified as a metastasis suppressor, but its unique expression profile has since shown its favorable effects on the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and, thus, the reproductive system.

History of Kisspeptin

During the middle of the 1990s, human chromosome 6 was introduced into a cancer cell, and experts discovered that this chromosome (later dubbed the KISS1 gene) prevented the formation of metastasis and the spread of cancer inside the cell.

It wasn't until 10 years later researchers discovered a significant revelation about how the Kisspeptin peptide works.

Kisspeptin is a ligand of the G-protein coupled receptor 54 (GPR54), and many studies published around the middle of the millennium found that it plays a vital role in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. This facet of the Kisspeptin peptide is still the subject of ongoing study.

Kisspeptin And Reproductive Disorders

Hypogonadism is a frequent hormonal imbalance in which neither the sex organs of the male (the testes) nor the female (the ovaries) generates enough of the corresponding hormones. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is a subtype in which low testosterone levels result from hypothalamic or pituitary gland dysfunction.

The release of gonadotropin-releasing hormones from the brain marks the beginning of a typical hormonal cycle (GnRH). Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are secreted from the pituitary gland in response to GnRH (LH). When combined, FSH and LH stimulate the ovaries and testes throughout puberty, producing healthy quantities of estrogen (in females) and sperm (in males).

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, which negatively impacts sexual development, is caused by a deficiency in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH).

What role does Kisspeptin play in the body?

The GnRH receptor GPR54, also known as the KISS1 receptor (KISS1R), is essential for developing animal puberty.

By binding to GPR54 receptors, Kisspeptin triggers the reproductive axis, causing neurons to secrete more GnRH and gonadotropin. When Kisspeptin is applied to the brain and spinal cord, it activates more than 85% of GnRH neurons, causing them to produce FSH and LH.

As was mentioned above, the KISS1 gene produces a peptide of 54 amino acids called Kisspeptin. Additional peptide segments with biological activity for GPR54 include Kisspeptin 10, 13, and 14. In order to induce calcium mobilization, arachidonic acid release, and extracellular protein kinase phosphorylation, these shorter peptides bind to the GPR54 receptors with a low affinity. These processes control gonadotropin release by depolarizing GnRH neurons and depolarizing Kisspeptin neurons.

Kisspeptin promotes the release of GnRH by directly stimulating the GnRH neurons rather than the pituitary gland, where GPR54 is also expressed. Kisspeptin is the most potent and efficient peptide, which controls reproduction by stimulating the overwhelming majority of GnRH neurons.

Laboratory and Non-Human Subject Research

Feminine Reproductive Function

This 2017 research (n=10) included a comprehensive literature search of all relevant studies published between 1999 and 2016.

Based on the literature, professionals determined that the Kisspeptin system (KISS1 gene and its products, GPR54 receptors) is critical for the start of puberty and, by extension, the regulation of the release of gonadotropin hormones.

In addition, experts reported that various experiments were performed on animal models with features comparable to those of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). These studies showed that defects in the KISS1 and GPR54 systems contribute to developing reproductive diseases, including HH and PCOS.

Based on the findings of this research, Kisspeptin seems to be a crucial neuropeptide in regulating GnRH release and is essential for a healthy female reproductive system.

Significance for Delayed Puberty

Evaluation of the effects of Kisspeptin peptide in young subjects with delayed puberty was the primary focus of this investigation. Researchers predicted that this peptide's mechanism of action would assist in increasing gonadal hormone release and control reproductive system development in young subjects with a delayed start of puberty.

This 2018 research recruited 11 males and 4 females, all receiving a single dose of Kisspeptin or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Overnight, researchers tracked serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH).

After 6 days of GnRH treatment, all patients had another round of LH testing. Seven of the 15 subjects responded well to Kisspeptin with elevated LH hormone levels, one kid had a moderate reaction, and the other seven had no response to the peptide.

Although outcomes differed across participants, more follow-up studies should be conducted on these models to see whether peptide administration affects them when they start puberty. Researchers are still trying to pin down the full scope of the consequences.

If you are a researcher interested in further studying this compound, you can find Kisspeptin and other peptides here.


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